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dc.contributor.advisorCardona Álvarez, José Alberto
dc.contributor.authorBuitrago Mejía, Jhonny Alberto
dc.description.abstractThe equine eye can be examined with simple portable equipment. To make an adequate diagnosis it is necessary to know the macroscopic and ultrasound anatomy of the orbit, the ocular globule and peri-ocular structures of the horses. In Colombia, no studies have been found that describe the anatomical variants of the ocular system, nor the biometric parameters of equines, so in this work a macroscopic description of the anatomical variants was made, some ultrasound biometric parameters were reported and the Frequency of lesions of the ocular and peri-ocular structures in a population of dairy horses in the department of Córdoba. An observational descriptive study was carried out in 100 eyes of cowherd horses of different breeds from the department of Córdoba selected for convenience, which underwent an ophthalmological examination under field conditions, recording the variations found in the eyeball and attached structures. as well as the injuries present. Additionally, a descriptive study of ocular biometry was carried out. The animals sampled were mainly of the Colombian Criollo breed (29/50; 58%) and Apaloosa (17/50; 34%), between 2 and 10 years old (35/50; 70%), and mostly female (32 / 50; 64%). Lesions were found in 44% (22/50) of the animals and 38% (38/100) of the eyes evaluated. Eyelid dermatitis and the injected conjunctiva were the most common lesions, with a frequency of 11.3% each. The biometric values obtained were: anterior chamber 0.68 ± 0.08 cm, lens width 2.00 ± 0.16 cm, lens length 1.11 ± 0.09 cm, glass chamber 1.80 ± 0.15 cm, axial length of the eyeball 3.91 ± 0.28cm. A difference between sexes was observed for measurements of the width of the lens and the axial length of the eyeball. This is the first prospective study of ocular lesions in dairy horses to be carried out in Colombia, and the first ultrasound ocular biometry report in dairy horses to be carried out in equines from Colombia. It was found that, although mild, many of the animals dedicated to dairy farming present alterations of ocular or peri ocular structures. Regarding ocular biometry, differences were found in measurements of the anterior chamber, the vitreous chamber and the axial length of the globe with respect to that reported by other authors.eng
dc.description.tableofcontents1 RESUMEN________________________________________________________________1spa
dc.description.tableofcontents2 ABSTACT ________________________________________________________________ 2spa
dc.description.tableofcontents3 INTRODUCCIÓN___________________________________________________________ 3spa
dc.description.tableofcontents4 OBJETIVOS_______________________________________________________________ 6spa
dc.description.tableofcontents4.1 Objetivo general__________________________________________________________ 6spa
dc.description.tableofcontents4.2 Objetivos específicos_______________________________________________________ 6spa
dc.description.tableofcontents5 MARCO TEÓRICO__________________________________________________________ 7spa
dc.description.tableofcontents5.1 Examen ocular____________________________________________________________ 7spa
dc.description.tableofcontents5.2 Historia (anamnesis) _______________________________________________________ 7spa
dc.description.tableofcontents5.3 Apariencia general de ojos y anexos___________________________________________8spa
dc.description.tableofcontents5.4 Evaluación de Reflejos_____________________________________________________ 9spa
dc.description.tableofcontents5.4.1 Respuesta de amenaza_____________________________________________________ 9spa
dc.description.tableofcontents5.4.2 Reflejo de deslumbramiento_________________________________________________9spa
dc.description.tableofcontents5.4.3 Respuesta pupilar a la luz (reflejo pupilar) ______________________________________9spa
dc.description.tableofcontents5.4.4 Reflejo palpebral_________________________________________________________ 10spa
dc.description.tableofcontents5.4.5 Reflejo corneal___________________________________________________________10spa
dc.description.tableofcontents5.5 Aquinesia y bloqueos nerviosos regionales____________________________________¬¬¬_10spa
dc.description.tableofcontents5.5.1 Nervio auriculo palpebral__________________________________________________¬_11spa
dc.description.tableofcontents5.5.2 Nervio supra orbital_______________________________________________________11spa
dc.description.tableofcontents5.6 Anestesia tópica__________________________________________________________12spa
dc.description.tableofcontents5.7 Evaluación de las Estructuras oculares________________________________________ 12spa
dc.description.tableofcontents5.7.1 Evaluación corneal________________________________________________________12spa
dc.description.tableofcontents5.7.2 Cámara anterior__________________________________________________________12spa
dc.description.tableofcontents5.7.3 Cristalino_______________________________________________________________ 12spa
dc.description.tableofcontents5.7.4 Examen de fondo de ojo___________________________________________________13spa
dc.description.tableofcontents5.8 Ayudas diagnósticas______________________________________________________ 14spa
dc.description.tableofcontents5.8.1 Tinción con Fluoresceína___________________________________________________14spa
dc.description.tableofcontents5.8.2 Evaluación de la presión intraocular: Tonometría_______________________________ 14spa
dc.description.tableofcontents5.8.3 Evaluación del Drenaje naso lagrimal_________________________________________ 15spa
dc.description.tableofcontents5.8.4 Evaluación de la producción de lágrimas: Test de Schirmer_______________________15spa
dc.description.tableofcontents5.8.5 Oftalmoscopia indirecta____________________________________________________16spa
dc.description.tableofcontents5.8.6 Oftalmoscopia directa_____________________________________________________ 16spa
dc.description.tableofcontents5.8.7 Ecografía ocular___________________________________________________________17spa
dc.description.tableofcontents5.9 Biometría ocular__________________________________________________________18spa
dc.description.tableofcontents5.10 Enfermedades oculares____________________________________________________ 18spa
dc.description.tableofcontents5.10.1 Enfermedades de la Orbita__________________________________________________19spa
dc.description.tableofcontents5.10.2 Enfermedades de los párpados_______________________________________________19spa
dc.description.tableofcontents5.10.3 Enfermedades de la conjuntva_______________________________________________20spa
dc.description.tableofcontents5.10.4 Enfermedades del sistema naso lagrimal_______________________________________20spa
dc.description.tableofcontents5.10.5 Enfermedades de la cornea_________________________________________________ 20spa
dc.description.tableofcontents5.10.6 Enfermedades de la úvea___________________________________________________20spa
dc.description.tableofcontents5.10.7 Enfermedades del cristalino_________________________________________________21spa
dc.description.tableofcontents5.10.8 Cambios del humor vítreo__________________________________________________ 21spa
dc.description.tableofcontents5.10.9 Enfermedades del nervio óptico_____________________________________________ 21spa
dc.description.tableofcontents5.11 ESTUDIOS DE PREVALENCIA EN OTROS PAÍSES__________________________________21spa
dc.description.tableofcontents6 PRODUCTOS GENERADOS__________________________________________________ 22spa
dc.description.tableofcontents6.1 Artículos generados_______________________________________________________22spa
dc.description.tableofcontents7 CONCLUSIONES GENERALES_________________________________________________22spa
dc.description.tableofcontents8 RECOMENDACIONES_______________________________________________________23spa
dc.description.tableofcontents9 REFERENCIAS BIBLIOGRÁFICAS_______________________________________________23spa
dc.description.tableofcontents10 Anexo 1_________________________________________________________________29spa
dc.description.tableofcontents11 Anexo 2_________________________________________________________________51spa
dc.rightsCopyright Universidad de Córdoba, 2021spa
dc.titleCaracterización, biometría ecográfica y frecuencia de lesiones de estructuras oculares y perioculares de caballos de vaquería del departamento de Córdoba, Colombiaspa
dc.typeTrabajo de grado - Maestríaspa
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dc.rights.creativecommonsAtribución-NoComercial-SinDerivadas 4.0 Internacional (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)spa
dc.description.resumenEl ojo equino se puede examinar con equipos portátiles simples, para realizar un adecuado diagnóstico es necesario conocer la anatomía macroscópica y ecográfica de la órbita, el glóbulo ocular y estructuras peri oculares de los caballos. En Colombia no se han encontrado estudios que describan las variantes anatómicas del sistema ocular, ni los parámetros biométricos de los equinos, por lo que en este trabajo se realizó una descripción macroscópica de las variantes anatómicas, se reportaron algunos parámetros biométricos ecográficos y se determinó la frecuencia de lesiones de las estructuras oculares y peri oculares en una población de equinos de vaquería del departamento de Córdoba. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo observacional en 100 ojos de caballos de vaquería de distintas razas del departamento de Córdoba seleccionados a conveniencia, a los cuales se les realizó un examen oftalmológico en condiciones de campo, registrando las variaciones encontradas en el globo ocular y estructuras anexas, así como las lesiones presentes. Adicionalmente se realizó un estudio descriptivo de la biometría ocular. Los animales muestreados fueron principalmente de raza Criollo colombiano (29/50; 58%) y Apaloosa (17/50; 34%), entre 2 y 10 años (35/50;70%), y en su mayoría hembras (32/50; 64%). Se encontraron lesiones en el 44% (22/50) de los animales y el 38% (38/100) de los ojos evaluados. La dermatitis palpebral y la conjuntiva inyectada fueron las lesiones más comunes, con una frecuencia de 11,3% cada una. Los valores biométricos obtenidos fueron, cámara anterior 0,68±0,08 cm, ancho del lente 2,00 ± 0,16 cm, largo del lente 1,11 ± 0,09 cm, cámara vítrea 1,80 ± 0,15 cm, longitud axial del globo ocular 3,91 ± 0,28cm. se observó diferencia entre sexos para las medidas del ancho del lente y la longitud axial del globo ocular. Este es el primer estudio prospectivo de lesiones oculares en caballos de vaquería que se realiza en Colombia, y el primer reporte de biometría ocular ultrasonográfica, en caballos de vaquería que se realiza en equinos de Colombia. Se encontró que, aunque leves, muchos de los animales dedicados a las labores de vaquería presentan alteraciones de estructuras oculares o peri oculares. En cuanto a la biometría ocular se encontraron diferencias en las mediciones la cámara anterior, la cámara vítrea y la longitud axial del globo respecto a lo reportado por otros
dc.description.degreenameMagíster en Ciencias Veterinarias del Trópicospa
dc.publisher.facultyFacultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecniaspa
dc.publisher.placeMontería, Córdoba, Colombiaspa
dc.publisher.programMaestría en Ciencias Veterinarias del Trópicospa
dc.description.modalityTrabajo de Investigación y/o Extensiónspa

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