Epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis in children under five years in the municipality of San Andres de Sotavento, Córdoba (Colombia), 2012
Abstract: Objective: To determine the casuistry of visceral leishmaniasis in children under five years old from the municipality of San Andres de Sotavento in the department of Cordoba, Colombia. In particular, to relate the cases registered with the variables of age, sex, race, origin, physical status, treatment, hematologic evaluations and predisposing causes for presentation. Materials and methods: This was a descriptive, retrospective study. The analysis unit corresponded to the archives of the Secretariat of Health of Cordoba, which recorded a population of 278 medical records of patients with leishmaniasis in the study area. The sample consisted of 70 medical records of childrens under five years old with visceral leishmaniasis. The data collection was achieved through the use of chips adapted to the objectives of the study. Results: The study highlights the increased commitment to the group of 12 years, with 45.71% of the cases, 55.75% of predominance of males, and 94.29% of significance of the Indian race. The body condition of infected infants as a whole was assessed as fair and poor. The origin of children was related to the communities of Cerro Los Vidales, Tuchín, Guayacan, El Contento, Las Gardenias and Los Castillos. The evaluation of the treatment administered showed great desertion (85.71%) in the completion of the cycles. Hematic evaluations showed hematocrit, hemoglobin and platelet decreased, and increasing of the speed of sedimentation. The observations of the white cell count showed non normal white blood cell count greater than 80% for leukocytes, neutrophils and lymphocytes with moderate to monocytes, and minimum to basophils and eosinophils counts. Predisposing conditions for the presentation of visceral leishmaniasis were interesting, reported by the children responsible for a history of visceral leishmaniasis in the villages (71.4%), and family history (60.0%). The keeping of dogs as epidemiological risk factor is evidenced by the coexistence with the same (77.1%) in the home and report cases of the disease in the animal species. Conclusion: Leishmaniasis is considered a reemerging disease, and a growing public health problem worldwide, due to increased number of people affected as a result of increased exposure of humans to disease vectors.
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