Daño citogenético por exposición a plaguicidas en niños en el municipio de San Pelayo departamento de Córdoba – Colombia
Negrete Hernández, Sibila de Jesús | 2021-10-14
In Colombia, agricultural activities are a source of economic importance; however, it has a negative impact on people's health and ecosystems in the area. In the department of Córdoba, there are reports about the presence of pesticides in soils, water, and sediments (Marrugo et al, 2010). Moreover, there are reports of two studies from 2015 and 2016 in infant populations associated with agriculturalareas, where cytogenetic damage was evaluated through the use of the Comet Assay, Micronucleus test and presence of pesticide metabolites in the urine reporting a higher frequency of damage in relation to the control sample. The municipality of San Pelayo has an area of 447.6 km2, in which the rural area is represented by 99.2% of the populations. This makes almost the whole land dedicated to cattle raising and agriculture, exposing its inhabitants and children to live with many of these hazardous waste. Objective. To evaluate the cytogenetic damage caused by exposure to pesticides in children between the ages of 5 and 15 years old living in agricultural areas in the municipality of San Pelayo, Córdoba, Colombia. Materials and Methods. Peripheral blood and urine samples were taken from children living in the areas associated with the crop and children from the city of Monteria as a control group. The pesticide exposure evaluation was done through the exposure of biomarkers (Atrazine urinary concentration (ATZ) and its metabolites) and biomarkers of cytogenetic damage (frequency of micronuclei (MN) and Comet Assay (EC). Results. Measurable concentrations of ATZ and / or its metabolites were found, as well as a higher frequency of MN and DNA damage was evidenced in the parameters evaluated of blood samples taken in Pelayito in relation to the control. Significant positive associations were registered between the presence of urinary metabolites and micronucleus frequency (r = 0.368, p <0.05) and the DNA damage index (r = 0.374, p <0.05) Conclusions. Children are exposed to one of the most widely used pesticides in Pelayito, showing a positive relationship with cytogenetic damage biomarkers (MN and EC), comparing them with the control group. Putting children's health in risk. Furthermore, the results can be useful in the implementation of public health protection policies and scientific communities. This is the first study of DNA damage in children and the evaluation of mutagenicity in children of San Pelayo associated with an agricultural area.